Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2021)                   RABMS 2021, 7(4): 172-178 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Safa Larijani K, Moghhaddam Nia A A, Bozorgi Makrani A, AbouHosseini Tabari M, Khodadadi E. Antimicrobial Activity of Carvacrol against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei, An In-Vitro Study. RABMS. 2021; 7 (4) :172-178
URL: http://ijrabms.umsu.ac.ir/article-1-169-en.html
: Associate Professor, Oral Health Research Center, Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran , drekhodadadi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (351 Views)
Background & Aims:  Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and Lactobacillus casei L. casei) are the primary bacterial pathogens involved in dental caries and periodontal diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Carvacrol in inhibiting the growth of these two microbial species in-vitro.
Materials & Methods:  In this study, we prepared standard colonies of L. acidophilus and L. casei, then evaluated disk diffusion and well diffusion tests on De Man-Rugose and Sharpe (MRS) agar plates to determine the antimicrobial activity of Carvacrol.  We used 30 µg tetracycline disks as control. To evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Carvacrol was used in the range of 20 to 0.039 µL in MRS broth medium containing bacteria. To determine the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), the contents of tubes were subsequently cultured on MRS agar plates.
Results:  The MIC and MBC of Carvacrol against L. casei were 0.406 ± 0.143 and 0.813 ± 0.287 µg/mL, and against L. acidophilus were 0.254 ± 0.072 and 0.406 ± 0.143 µg/mL, respectively. In the disk diffusion test, carvacrol solution (2%) significantly induced inhibitory zones against L. casei and L. acidophilus. Although In the well diffusion test, 2% carvacrol solution generated inhibitory zones against L. casei. and against L. acidophilus with detectableinhibitory zones, but they werer not statistically significant.. We noted a significant difference only for the volume of 80 µL of solution (p = 0.03).
Conclusion:  The present study indicated that Carvacrol could be used as a natural alternative agent against L. acidophilus and L. casei generated dental caries.
Full-Text [PDF 298 kb]   (106 Downloads)    
Type of Study: orginal article | Subject: General

1. Karpiński TM, Szkaradkiewicz AK. Microbiology of dental caries. J Biol Earth Sci 2013;3(1):M21-4. [Google Scholar]
2. Featherstone J. The continuum of dental caries-evidence for a dynamic disease process. J. Dent. Res 2004;83(1_suppl):39-42. [DOI:10.1177/154405910408301s08] [PMID]
3. Carminative T. A review on antimicrobial activity of vegetables, herbs and spices against cariogenic bacteria. Res J of Bio 2016;4(4):12-20. [Google Scholar]
4. Tanzer JM, Livingston J, Thompson AM. The microbiology of primary dental caries in humans. J. Dent. Educ 2001;65(10):1028-37. [DOI:10.1002/j.0022-0337.2001.65.10.tb03446.x] [PMID]
5. Staat RH, Gawronski TH, Cressey DE, Harris RS, Folke LE. Effects of dietary sucrose levels on the quantity and microbial composition of human dental plaque. J. Dent. Res 1975;54(4):872-80. [DOI:10.1177/00220345750540042801] [PMID]
6. Tanzer J, Freedman M, Fitzgerald R, Larson R. Diminished virulence of glucan synthesis-defective mutants of Streptococcus mutans. Infect. Immun 1974;10(1):197-203. [DOI:10.1128/iai.10.1.197-203.1974] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Holbrook W, De Soet J, De Graaff J. Prediction of dental caries in pre-school children. Caries Res 1993;27(5):424-30. https://doi.org/10.1159/000261575 [DOI:10.1159/000261574]
8. Ikeda T, Sandham H, Bradley Jr E. Changes in Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli in plaque in relation to the initiation of dental caries in Negro children. Arch. Oral Biol 1973;18(4):555-66. [DOI:10.1016/0003-9969(73)90076-9]
9. Brookes ZL, Bescos R, Belfield LA, Ali K, Roberts A. Current uses of chlorhexidine for management of oral disease: a narrative review. J. Dent 2020:103497. [DOI:10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103497] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Shekar BRC, Nagarajappa R, Suma S, Thakur R. Herbal extracts in oral health care-A review of the current scenario and its future needs. Pharmacogn Rev 2015;9(18):87. [DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.162101] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Palombo EA. Traditional medicinal plant extracts and natural products with activity against oral bacteria: potential application in the prevention and treatment of oral diseases. Evid. -based Complement. Altern Med 2011;2011. [DOI:10.1093/ecam/nep067] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Bidhendi N, Ahmadi Ashtiani H, Ayatollahi A, Yadangi S, Ghorban Dadras O, Firooz A. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of a herbal extract lotion with clotrimazole 1% lotion in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis: A randomized clinical trial. J. Cosmet. Dermatol 2017;7(4):189-99. [Google Scholar]
13. Dias DA, Urban S, Roessner U. A historical overview of natural products in drug discovery. Metabolites 2012;2(2):303-36. [DOI:10.3390/metabo2020303] [PMID] [PMCID]
14. Paczesny J, Bielec K. Application of bacteriophages in nanotechnology. Nanomaterials 2020;10(10):1944. [DOI:10.3390/nano10101944] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Raza S, Matuła K, Karoń S, Paczesny J. Resistance and Adaptation of Bacteria to Non-Antibiotic Antibacterial Agents: Physical Stressors, Nanoparticles, and Bacteriophages. Antibiotics 2021;10(4):435. [DOI:10.3390/antibiotics10040435] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Onsea J, Post V, Buchholz T, Schwegler H, Zeiter S, Wagemans J, et al. Bacteriophage Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of Fracture-Related Infection Caused by Staphylococcus aureus: a Preclinical Study. Microbiol. Spectr 2021;9(3):e01736-21. [DOI:10.1128/spectrum.01736-21] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Sun Y, Oliver J. Antimicrobial action of some GRAS compounds against Vibrio vulnificus. Food Addit Contam 1994;11(5):549-58. [DOI:10.1080/02652039409374256] [PMID]
18. Gonelimali FD, Lin J, Miao W, Xuan J, Charles F, Chen M, et al. Antimicrobial properties and mechanism of action of some plant extracts against food pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Front. Microbiol 2018;9:1639. [DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2018.01639] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Suntres ZE, Coccimiglio J, Alipour M. The bioactivity and toxicological actions of carvacrol. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2015;55(3):304-18. [DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.653458] [PMID]
20. Tiwari BK, Valdramidis VP, O'Donnell CP, Muthukumarappan K, Bourke P, Cullen P. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation. J. Agric. Food Chem 2009;57(14):5987-6000. [DOI:10.1021/jf900668n] [PMID]
21. Kachur K, Suntres Z. The antibacterial properties of phenolic isomers, carvacrol and thymol. . Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020;60(18):3042-53. [DOI:10.1080/10408398.2019.1675585] [PMID]
22. Magi G, Marini E, Facinelli B. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and carvacrol, and synergy of carvacrol and erythromycin, against clinical, erythromycin-resistant Group A Streptococci. Front. Microbiol 2015;6:165. [DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00165]
23. Sousa Silveira Zd, Macêdo NS, Sampaio dos Santos JF, Sampaio de Freitas T, Rodrigues dos Santos Barbosa C, Júnior DLdS, et al. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity and efflux pump reversal of thymol and carvacrol against Staphylococcus aureus and their toxicity in drosophila melanogaster. Molecules 2020;25(9):2103. [DOI:10.3390/molecules25092103] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Chan C-L, Gan R-Y, Shah NP, Corke H. Polyphenols from selected dietary spices and medicinal herbs differentially affect common food-borne pathogenic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Food Control 2018;92:437-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.05.032]
25. Le Bars P, Matamoros S, Montassier E, Le Vacon F, Potel G, Soueidan A, et al. The oral cavity microbiota: between health, oral disease, and cancers of the aerodigestive tractCan. J. Microbiol 2017;63(6):475-92. [DOI:10.1139/cjm-2016-0603] [PMID]
26. Badet C, Thebaud N. Ecology of lactobacilli in the oral cavity: a review of literature. Open Microbiol. J 2008;2:38. [DOI:10.2174/1874285800802010038] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Mathela CS, Singh KK, Gupta VK. Synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. Acta Pol Pharm 2010;67(4):375-80. [Pub Med]
28. Manconi M, Petretto G, D'hallewin G, Escribano E, Milia E, Pinna R, et al. Thymus essential oil extraction, characterization and incorporation in phospholipid vesicles for the antioxidant/antibacterial treatment of oral cavity diseases. Colloids Surf. B 2018;171:115-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.07.021] [PMID]
29. Machado D, Gaspar C, Palmeira-de-Oliveira A, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L, Martinez-de-Oliveira J, et al. Thymbra capitata essential oil as potential therapeutic agent against Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm-related infections. Future Microbiol 2017;12(5):407-16. [DOI:10.2217/fmb-2016-0184] [PMID]
30. D'Aimmo MR, Modesto M, Biavati B. Antibiotic resistance of lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from dairy and pharmaceutical productsInt. J. Food Microbiol 2007;115(1):35-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2006.10.003] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Research in Applied and Basic Medical Sciences

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb