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Adikwu E, Adikwu O, Inga P. Adverse Drug Reactions to Antiretroviral Therapy in Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Applied and Basic Medical Sciences 2022; 8 (4) :189-195
URL: http://ijrabms.umsu.ac.ir/article-1-233-en.html
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Niger Delta University, Nigeria , adikwuelias@gmail.com
Abstract:   (823 Views)
Background & Aims:  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus belonging to the family of lentiviruses. It is the causative organism of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), which has become one of the greatest public health challenges faced by mankind. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved survival and the quality of life of the people living with HIV, but the occurrence of adverse reactions is a serious challenge. This study assessed adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the people living with HIV on first line HAART attending Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.
Materials & Methods:  In this descriptive-retrospective study, the data of 350 people on HAART attending FMC, Makurdi, Nigeria from 2010 to 2012 were collected, using a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Chi-square with the aid of SPSS v.20 software. A p-value ˂0.05 was considered significant.
Results:  HIV infection was more in females (66%) than in males (34%). Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) were more in females (60%) than in males (40%). The most prescribed HAART regimens were zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (44.3%), and tenofovir/emtricitabine/nevirapine (31.7%). ADRs were observed in 195 (55.7 %) of the people living with HIV on first line HAART. The observed ADRs were abdominal pain (28.7%), diarrhea (10.8%), vomiting (3.6%), hepatitis (17%), mild skin rash (22%), severe skin rash (4%), anemia (0.4%), peripheral neuropathy (5.4%), insomnia (4.0%), and dizziness (3.6%). Most ADRs were observed in nevirapine based HAART; zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (46.6%) and tenofovir/emtricitabine/nevirapine (32.6%). The nature of the observed ADRs was mild (71.6%), moderate (27.1%) and severe (1.30%).
Conclusion:  The use of first line HAART seems safe, because observed ADRs were not severe, but the patients should be routinely monitored for ADRs.
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